If your apartment doesn’t have a washing line, then drying your laundry after washing is stressful, that’s for sure. But how can you get out of this stressful situation? One way is to get a drying rack.
Besides being cost-friendly drying racks are durable and dry clothes naturally – requires no electrical energy. To make sure you don’t regret your decision, only choose from the best clothes drying racks in the market.
Our Top 5 Picks:
The second way is to get a dryer. Although a dryer is useful and will get your clothes dry within minutes, you should be aware that besides paying much money for it, it’s going to cost you pretty more because it consumes a substantial amount of electricity.
Today, we will focus on how you can dry your clothes using a drying rack. While finding a good drying rack is not easy, here I have outlined a shortlist of the top clothes drying racks worth checking out.
- 10 Best Clothes Drying Rack Reviews:
- 1. AmazonBasics Foldable Clothes Drying Laundry Rack
- 2. Household Essentials 5012-1 Portable 2-Tier Clothes Drying Rack
- 3. Honey-Can-Do Heavy Duty Gullwing Drying Rack
- 4. Cresnel Stainless Steel Clothes Drying Rack
- 5. Whitmor Foldable Drying Rack
- 6. Home-it clothes drying rack
- 7. Household Essentials 6524 Indoor Folding Wooden Clothes Drying Rack
- 8. Honey-Can-Do Large Folding Drying Rack
- 9. Honey-Can-Do Metal Folding Drying Rack
- 10. Polder Wall-Mount 24-Inch Accordion Clothes Dryer White
- What to Consider Before Buying a Clothes Drying Rack:
- How to build a folding clothes drying rack
- How to install hanging clothes drying rack
- Frequently Asked Questions About Cloth Drying Rack
- Final Verdict
10 Best Clothes Drying Rack Reviews:
1. AmazonBasics Foldable Clothes Drying Laundry Rack
- Clothes drying rack for energy savings and gentle drying so your clothes last longer
- Made of durable yet lightweight steel that is easy to move from room to room; supports up to 32 pounds
Undoubtedly, the AmazonBasics foldable rack is one of the best laundry drying racks you should consider. Why is that?
First, you will love the foldable design of the AmazonBasics rack. It’s easy to set up – just expand the rack into an upright position and then hook the top bar and lock.
The rack only measures about 14. 5 x 29.5 x 41.75 inches. It offers enough space for efficiency drying, all in a small footprint.
When your laundry has dried, you can quickly fold flat the rack and store it. In fact, it’s compact enough to fit in a closet, saving you pretty of space in your room.
Second, the AmazonBasics is built out of a durable yet lightweight steel material. The steel surface is coated with a gleaming chrome surface that keeps your clothes safe from rust and mildew. The steel rack is also portable and works perfectly in any location.
The ample hanging space is another thing that you’ll love about this rack. It’s designed with 11 stiff rods that provide enough hanging space with adequate airflow to ensure faster drying.
The flat top of the rack is fitted with 4 rods while the other 7 rods are strategically placed below. The rack offers enough strength and stability. Overall, it can hold up to approximately 32 pounds of weight.
With the AmazonBasics foldable clothes drying rack also guarantee peace of mind since it comes with a 1 – year limited warranty.
- Flat foldable design
- Chrome surface to protect cloths against rust and mildew
- Ample weight capacity – 32 pounds capacity
- 11 hanging rods
- Steel construction
2. Household Essentials 5012-1 Portable 2-Tier Clothes Drying Rack
- COLLAPSIBLE, folding, indoor tri pod clothes dryer and laundry rack designed for maximum stability
- PORTABLE clothes hanging system holds up to 72 garments
The Household Essentials 5012-1 portable cloth drying rack is another excellent drying rack that revolutionizes the way you do laundry.
The 2-Tier clothes dryer is a product if the Household Essentials manufacturers, best known to manufacture the best laundry and storage equipment.
One fantastic feature of the Household Essentials 5012-1 is that it comes with 2 newly redesigned arms.
The arms are designed to increase the strength and stability of the rack, making sure it doesn’t break easily. Additionally, you can use the adjustable neck to change the height of rack to suit your hanging needs.
The 5012-1 drying rack gives you more drying options – it’s fitted with a portable cloth hanging system that can hold up to 72 pieces of garments. Definitely, that’s pretty much space compared to what other drying racks in its class are offering.
The rack is also compact, transportable, and doesn’t any require tools assembly. If you are worried that you don’t have ample space in your washing room for a drying rack, worry no more.
The Household Essentials 5012-1 clothes drying rack is collapsible and only requires a small space for storage.
The Household Essentials 5012-1 portable clothes drying rack has a sturdy tripod design for maximum stability. It’s also multi-functional – can be used for drying laundry or in the bedroom for an added closet space.
- Portable and ample hanging system – can hold up to 72 garments
- 2 newly re-designed arms
- Adjustable neck
- Lightweight – 5.65 pounds
- Collapsible and folding
3. Honey-Can-Do Heavy Duty Gullwing Drying Rack
- Dry a large load with 46 linear feet of drying space
- Folds down to a slim 3-inch profile
The honey can do drying rack is another amazing yet heavy-duty drying rack.
With 46 feet of linear drying space when fully expanded, this rack provides an adequate amount of space for drying even the most massive loads of clothes.
Besides, the rack has additional space where you can dry your sweater using a mesh sweater shelf that’s underneath. You also have drying spots for boots and shoes. In other words, this rack caters for all your laundry needs.
If you have a small room for storage, then the honey can do heavy-duty rack works for you. The rack configures into 6 positions and folds down flat to 3-inches only for secure storage when not in use.
The rack is easy to set-up and extends to about 64 inches wide. Overall, this rack measures 57 x 23.5 x 37 inches.
The weight capacity of this rack is about 8.5 lbs. Although it’s not that much, it’s manageable, especially if you don’t have lots of laundries to dry.
Also, to increase stability and support for heavy garments, this drying rack is fitted with sturdy and durable steel-made support arms.
With the Honey can do drying rack, your peace of mind is guaranteed. The rack comes with a limited lifetime warranty. There is absolutely no need to worry about high maintenance costs.
- 6 steel made position wings support arms
- Multi-year Sweater
- 2 pairs of shoe holders
- 46 linear feet drying space
- Weight capacity of 8.5 lbs.
4. Cresnel Stainless Steel Clothes Drying Rack
- Original Cresnel brand now with 2019 newly improved quality. Besides indoor use this rack can now withstand outdoor use under direct sunshine or rain without becoming rusty. This rust-proof claim is backed by Cresnel free lifetime replacement warranty.
- Expansive top planar area of 58” x 24” provides generous drying area for typical household wash load. Hang dry your laundry onto the multiple rails or with hanger for an even larger load. Bottom rack will accommodate shoes and slippers.
The Cresnel Stainless Steel Clothes Drying rack is another ideal laundry drying rack. Besides being great for both outdoor and indoor usage, this Cresnel drying rack will save you tones of energy costs.
When fully extended, cresnel drying rack expands up to 58 x 24 x 40 inches, therefore, offering adequate space for your drying needs.
With this rack, you don’t have to stress over your clothes, getting rusty – it has been designed to be 100 % rust-proof. It will serve you well regardless of your climatic condition.
The Cresnel also comes fully assembled. Simply expand the rack into an A shape position and then flip up the right/left panels and you are ready to go. Absolutely no assembly tools are required for the setup.
The rack can is designed with versatile yet foldable steel construction. When you are not using it, you can fold it down into a triangular shape measuring 40 x 24 x 3 inches to allow for easy storage.
The cresnel stainless steel clothes drying rack weighs only about 7 lbs. and so you can move it around quite easily. The multiple rails on this rack allow you to dry even larger loads of laundry. The rack can also have a shoe drying spot at the bottom.
While the quality of this rack offers a great value for your money, the rack also comes with a lifetime warranty for the rust-proof future, money-back satisfaction guarantee, and a 1-year warranty for the product.
- 1 – year warranty
- Rust-proof with Cresnel lifetime replacement warranty
- Foldable steel construction
- Ample hanging space up to up to 58 x 24 x 40 inches
5. Whitmor Foldable Drying Rack
For over 70 years, the Whitmor Company has maintained its reputation for creating high-quality products for household use.
Like the Cresnel Stainless steel drying rack, the Whitmor Foldable drying rack is convenient for both indoor and outdoor usage.
This drying rack has a collapsible design that effortlessly folds down easily to allow storage in small spaces. The rack requires no assembly – you only need to lock it or drop it open. It measures 14.5 x 29.5 x 41.76 inches when fully expanded.
The Whitmor foldable drying rack is made up of durable steel material that is covered with waterproof epoxy coating to protect your clothes from rust and mildew.
The robust steel construction increases the strength and stability of the rack to make sure that it can bear with the extra weights of your laundry.
What about the drying spaces? The Whitmor foldable drying rack is fitted with 11 drying rods enough to accommodate loads of laundry weighing up to 40 pounds.
The top layer is designed with 4 hanging rods lying close to each other. From drying garments, towels, t-shirts, bedsheets – the Whitmor drying rack can handle it all.
Additionally, this rack lightweight and easy to transport since it only weighs about 3. 79 Pounds. Wherever you want to dry your clothes from indoor or outdoor, you will have an easy time getting there.
- 11 hanging rods
- Maximum capacity weight of 40 pounds
- Lightweight – 3.79 pounds
- Waterproof Epoxy coating
- Steel construction
6. Home-it clothes drying rack
- laundry rack portable clothes rack Lightweight and easy to drop into position for use; cloth drying rack folds flat for storage
- ""it comes fully assembled"" laundry drying rack design for durability clothing racks
If you are looking to save energy cost while protecting your delicate garments from shrinking in the drier, then the Home-it clothes drying rack is the perfect rack for your laundry needs.
What you will love about this drying rack is the sturdy and versatile design it comes with. It’s built with sturdy bamboo material that offers an ample drying space and structure.
The rack is also collapsible for easy folding as well as storage when not in use.
Additionally, the top shelf of the rack is designed with 4 drying bars which you can use for large items or items that require flat lay hanging like sweaters. At the bottom are the 2-tiers spaces where you hang your clothes for air-drying.
The Home-it clothes drying rack comes when fully assembled, so you don’t have to worry about the installation process.
When fully expanded, the rack measures 14.5 x 29.5 x 41.75 inches with all the drying rods in and place ready for use. The 9 bars also allow for easy drying and folding down.
The lightweight nature of the bamboo rack also allows for easy transportation. It weighs approximately 4 pounds, making it great for outdoor activities such as camping.
Although it’s not very clear how much weight this rack can support, am confident it can handle a substantial amount of weight. Just make sure not to overload.
- Nine drying bars
- Rust and mildew resistant
- Sturdy bamboo construction
7. Household Essentials 6524 Indoor Folding Wooden Clothes Drying Rack
- Collapsible, energy saving, bamboo laundry rack with 11 drying rods that provide up to 25 feet of clothes drying space
- Hang wet laundry, baby clothes, sweaters, linens, guest clothes, or any number of clothing items
The Household Essentials 6524 folding clothes drying rack is another user-friendly wooden rack crafted from bamboo.
Although it can be used for both indoor and outdoor drying activities, don’t expose it to extreme weather conditions due to its wooden nature.
It’s also worth noting that the wooden nature of this rack doesn’t compromise on the quality. It’s as durable as stainless steel as long as you keep it in the right condition.
Also, no assembly is required – it comes fully pre-assembled and ready for use.
Another amazing feature of this rack is that it’s straightforward to open and close thanks to the gravity feature it comes with. The top of the rack’s arms are notched and cover the uppermost drying rod. The notch is designed to hold the rack open.
The Household Essentials 6524 wooden clothes drying rack is collapsible, and it’s fitted with 11 drying rods. The hanging space is adequate for all your laundry needs – offers space of up to 25ft.
When not in use, you can collapse it for storage. It folds down to about 3 inches wide, so storage isn’t an issue – you can even slip it behind the door.
To increase the stability of the drying rack, this bamboo drying rack is designed with angled feet. These feet allow the dryer to rest on the floor securely while reducing the chances of the rack wearing and treating.
Also, the fact that the Household Essential 6524 wooden clothes drying rack is crafted 100 % from a vibrant bamboo makes it very sturdy and stunning.
- Angled feet for stability
- Easily foldable
- Convenient for wet laundry
- 11 hanging rods
- Naturally made from bamboo
8. Honey-Can-Do Large Folding Drying Rack
- Large drying rack provides 24-linear feet of drying area
- Saves money and energy costs by drying clothes on drying rack
The honey-can-do large folding drying rack is another amazing drying rack that will save you money and energy costs.
Besides the rack being 0 % fabric, it has an ample drying space of up to 24-linear feet. The drying space is spacious enough and allows you to dry your clothes or household items while draped or laid flat.
The rack measures 30 x 15 x 42 inches when fully expanded. While not in use, you can fold down the rack to allow for easy storage. It folds flat to 3 inches wide.
Additionally, the honey-can-do folding drying rack is built from durable steel, therefore, making it very sturdy and durable. The steel is coated with a rust-resistant white finish to protect your laundry from rust.
The rack is unscented and only weighs approximately 2.68 pounds. While the exact weight capacity of this rack is not specified, the drying rack can support a substantial amount of weight.
However, it’s best not to load a lot of weight that could break it.
This rack is also quite affordable, especially given the strong and durable body it comes with. Even with such a price, the manufacturer offers you a limited lifetime warranty. This means that in case a specific part breaks or fails, it will be replaced by the manufacturer.
- 0 % fabric
- Limited lifetime warranty
- Strong steel construction
- 24-linear feet drying space
- Compact design – folds up to 3 inches wide
9. Honey-Can-Do Metal Folding Drying Rack
- Provides 30-linear feet of drying area for your clean laundry
- Saves money and energy costs by naturally drying clothes
Since 2008, the Honey-Can-Do international manufacturers has retained its reputation for producing high-quality products, including drying racks. The Honey-Can-Do-Metal folding drying rack is one of the products.
This rack is a great clothes drying rack that allows you to dry your laundry naturally. It’s built with a foldable metallic X-frame for easy storage.
Also, the rack is fitted with rubber feet for stability and to protect it against skidding on the floor. The rubber feet are also anti-scuff and protect your floors against damage when transporting it.
The Honey folding drying rack has adequate hanging space of 30 linear feet drying area. Additionally, the rack is designed with 10 drying rods where you can hang your clothes.
That’s enough space that can fit your laundry needs, including towels, garments, and t-shirts, among other clothes. When fully expanded, the rack measures 21 x 15 x 32.2 inches.
The honey folding drying rack is lightweight and measures approximately 1.4 pounds. It’s a great drying rack that’s convenient for use for outdoor purposes such as camping. You can use the top rack to dry freely or attach support hangers.
- Anti-skid rubber feet
- 30-linear feet drying area
- Metallic frame
- 10 drying rods
- Lightweight – 1.4 pounds
10. Polder Wall-Mount 24-Inch Accordion Clothes Dryer White
- Folding accordion drying rack mounts on walls for air drying wet clothes and towels
- Provides 12. 25 feet of drying space, 7 fixed rods are staggered to allow for air circulation
Last on our list is the Polder Wall-Mount 24-Inch Accordion clothes drying rack. For over 41 years, Polder manufacturers are known for high-quality products.
In fact, the Polder support is always ready to give a refund or replacement in case you aren’t satisfied with any of their products.
The Polder Wall-Mount 24-inch dryer is designed with 7 fixed rods which can support a substantial load of laundry. The sturdy 21-inch rods expand fully open, allowing for plenty of drying room.
It weighs only 2.7 pounds, and you easily move it around from your laundry room to your bedroom or outside for sun drying.
The Polder drying rack measures 18 inches when fully expanded and 24-inch when wall-mounted. Additionally, the rack is sturdy enough and supports a substantial load capacity of up to approximately 22 lbs., which is more than what other similar drying racks are offering. It offers approximately 12.25 feet of air-drying space.
When fully folded, the accordion rack measures only 5. 25 inches wide for concealed storage. This rack will work for you, especially if you are tight on space. It folds easily and can fit in a small space. Additionally, the rack can be mounted side-by-side.
The Polder Wall-mounted dryer is sturdy and can be used for extended periods of time. Also, the excellent weight capacity of this rack is perfect for use for a wide range of laundry type, including jeans, shirts, towels, and many more items.
- Accordion design that folds down to 5.25
- Weight capacity – 22 pounds
- 24-inch drying space
- Lightweight – 2.7 pounds
- Multi-room option
What to Consider Before Buying a Clothes Drying Rack:
Upgrading from traditional dryers to a modern cloth drying rack is a straightforward process if you know what to look for in a good rack.
Otherwise, you will devote lots of time to this and end up paying for something that won’t fulfill your desired needs. If you aren’t sure what a good drying rack looks like, here are a few factors to keep in mind.
The material is among the most important elements to consider when buying a drying rack. For instance, if you go for a drying rack crafted out of weak wood, it’s highly likely that it will break within a concise time. It can also damage your clothes with mildew.
So what’s the best material for a drying rack? An excellent material should be stain-resistant, rust-resistance, sturdy, durable, and lightweight. Stainless steel and wooden (crafted from durable woods such as the bamboo) are some of the best materials for a rack.
While this doesn’t mean that new brands don’t have high-quality products, it’s an excellent element to consider if you want to reduce the amount of time you will spend when looking for a good rack.
Brands with a good reputation manufacture good household products, including racks. You only need to identify a reputable manufacturer and get your laundry drying rack.
Definitely, a reputable company will charge you more for a drying rack, but you can rest assured that you are getting a quality product.
However, don’t rely on the price alone – sometimes, a high price doesn’t mean that the product is quality.
First, make sure that the product is quality, then pay. It won’t feel expensive if you will be grabbing a top-notch drying rack.
Why do you need a drying rack? If you need to for drying small items, you can do for a little dryer. On the other hand, if you have lots of laundries and the dryer is your only drying option, then you’ll need to get a bigger drying rack.
A heavy-duty drying rack is good since it’s able to support large loads. Compare the maximum weight capacity of different rack brands and get the one that works for you.
The best drying rack should be compact enough for you to move it around. If you want a rack for outdoor activities, then get a lightweight rack.
You should conveniently be able to drive your rack around the house or outside both when assembled or folded.
However, a heavy-duty rack with high capacity may not be easy to move unless it’s fitted with transport feet. For transportation feet, some racks are equipped with rubber for stability and safe moving.
Additionally, low-quality racks without such features may expose your floor to wear and tear.
Are you tight on space? If so, then you should get a compact drying rack. In fact, there are plenty of drying racks in the market that can be folded to 3 inches. This means that you easily fold it when not in use and store it in a closet.
The drying space is also another factor to consider. Your dryer should have adequate space to cater for all your drying needs. You can opt to go for a rack with many drying rods and space for other items such as shoes.
As seen on our best clothes drying rack review above, different brands of racks come with unique features. Some have as many as 20 rods
Other factors worth considering when buying a drying rack include the shape, size, color, assembly requirements (some racks come pre-assembled), and convenience of use, among other things.
I hope that these tips will help you on your journey of hunting for drying rack. Besides saving on your time, the tips will direct you to your heart-desired drying rack.
How to build a folding clothes drying rack
Drying your clothes using a dryer will definitely cause your clothes to shrink. So, what can you do about it? Build yourself a folding clothes drying rack!
Here is how to build a simple wooden folding drying rack;
What you need
- Wood glue
- Paint – choose your colour
- 8 – ⅝ inches dowels rods
- 2 narrow hinges
- Leather strap
- 4, 8 inches Cedar 1 x 4 inches
- Electric saw
- Framing nails
- A hammer
- Drill bit set
- Cut the cedars in half using the saw and then rip them into four different pieces.
- Drill 4 holes into 2 pieces (where you will fit the wooden rods) using the drill bit set. The pieces should be symmetrical
- Glue the 48” cedar boards to together. Ensure the 2 drilled boards face each other
- Cut the dowels to a sizable length and then glue them in – maintain a square structure
- Make the 2nd set of frames from the cedar boards
- Spray your paint on the finish and allow it to dry
- Clamp together the two racks and install the hinges – use the screws that match the hinges
- Add the leather strap – acts as a stop to prevent your rack from opening up beyond a proper angle causing it to collapse
- Make sure the rack is arid before using it.
How to install hanging clothes drying rack
Hanging clothes drying racks is an excellent way to save money on utility bills. And, if you can’t buy one, then make one! Here is how to go about it;
What you need
- Wood glue
- Dowels ⅜ inch thick
- A driller
- Buy sizable scrap lumber from oak if possible – acts as the rack supports. They should be as straight as possible
- Carefully cut 4 pieces of the lumber to 22 ½”, four to 21 and 19 ½ inches respectively, and two to 13 ½ inches. After cutting to smooth pieces, sand them.
- Cut the dowels – 11 to 26 inches
- Drill a hole in the lumber 1 inch from the edge. Do the same on the opposite side
- Drill a hole in the lumber (at the center)
- Do this (drilling) on all the pieces of lumber except on the 22 ½ inch and 13 ½ inch pieces
- Drill holes in one side on the 13 ½ inch pieces – 1 inch from one edge and 2 at 4 ⅜ and 8 ½ inches
- Put wood glue into the holes and put the dowels to assemble your rack
- Carefully align the center holes of the two 22 ½ inch supports – should make an X shape
- Add some glue into the hole and insert the dowel. Attach to the other side of the rack
- Do this for all the lumbers except for the 13 ½ inch pieces
- Attach the end holes to create two support sides – the longest lumber should be at the bottom and the smallest at the top of the rack
- Attach the two 13 ½ inch lumber pieces at the top at one edge – use a dowel and glue
- Put dowels in the other 2 holes, and the cut a dado at the remaining edge- to allow you to hook the dowel on the other side
- Spray the rack and allow it to dry
Frequently Asked Questions About Cloth Drying Rack
1. What are the best clothes drying rack?
In regard to the drying space, durability, and weight capacity, I’d say that the AmazonBasics clothes drying rack is the best clothes drying rack in our list.
Steel construction, flat foldable design, a chrome surface to protect your clothes from mildew and rust, 11 hanging rods, 32 pounds weight capacity, large expansion dimensions of 14.5 x 29.5 x 41.75 inches are some of the features that make the AmazonBasics a must-have drying rack especially if you have lots laundry.
Additionally, the rack is portable, lightweight, and comes with a 1-year warranty. This drying rack is an excellent value for your money.
2. How do you dry clothes in a small space?
The best way to dry your laundry in a small space would be to get a clothes drying rack. If you have lots of laundries that need drying, then get yourself a large drying rack.
Most drying racks that ample space and rods to dry your clothes in a small area. Also, most racks are foldable for secure storage when not in use.
For instance, the Household Essentials 5012-1 drying rack is among the best clothes drying rack for small places. It can hold up to 72 pieces of garments while it has size dimensions of approximately 70 – 77.5 x 26 x 26 inches.
3. How do you dry clothes fast?
The fastest way to dry your clothes is by using an electric dryer. It will dry lots of laundry within minutes.
If you have ample space in your apartment, then you can install a hanging line. Although it’s not as fast as the electric, it will dry your clothes fast.
Else, if you are not ready to pay the energy bills and you lack space, then get a clothes drying rack. Given its small-sized design, it will take some extended amounts of time to dry clothing, especially if they are heavy. However, since most drying racks are portable, you can move it outside to sun and air dry.
4. What is the best way to dry clothes indoors?
It will depend on the method that works for you. For instance, an electric dryer is a perfect way to dry clothes indoors.
However, besides costing you a good amount of cash, it comes with high maintenance and energy costs.
On the other hand, depending on the size of the dryer, it can handle lots of laundries. If the cost isn’t an issue, then a dryer is perfect for you.
The alternative will be to use a drying rack. It’s cheap compared to dryers. Also, it saves you money since it dries clothes naturally. However, it won’t dry your clothes as fast as an electric dryer.
Again, a drying rack may have a little bit less drying capacity than a dryer. If you only have small loads and aren’t in a hurry to get them dried, then a drying rack is perfect for you.
Also, the fact that it dries clothes naturally means that it is safer for delicate garments.
5. What is the best indoor clothes dryer?
One of the best indoor clothes drying rack from our list would be the Household Essentials 6524 Folding Wooden Clothes Drying rack. This rack is 100% crafted from bamboo wood.
Besides being stunning and rust/mildew resistant, the rack is fitted with 11 drying rods and offers ample drying space of up to 25 ft.
Additionally, the rack is designed with angled feet for stability. Another super feature of the 6524 rack is that it uses gravity to close.
Surely, all the clothes drying rack we have reviewed in this article are great. We won’t want you to waste a penny on your money on the wrong drying racks, that’s why we have picked only the best of the best in the market today. You only need to take the one that suits your laundry needs.
These racks are quality, durable, and come in different colors, sizes, capabilities, and capacities. Just pick one of the best laundry racks from our list and enjoy the numerous drying features like sweater and shoe platforms.
If you want to explore more clothes drying racks, keep in consideration the buying guide tips we have discussed above.